Showing posts from June, 2016


A preposition is a word or group of words which shows the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and other words in a sentence e.g., with, from, for, in etc. 
As time goes on, I'll know what to do (Incorrect)
As time goes by, I'll know what to do (Correct)

I don't have money with me now, let me check my purse (Incorrect)
I don't have money on me now, let me check my purse (Correct)

My son, Wilson is now living at London (Incorrect)
My son, Wilson is now living in London (Correct)


Into the depth of your eyes I look
Arrested by the passion in your stare
Magnetised by the glamour in your cheeks
Lost in the glory of your presence
Behind, the lagoon’s whispers
Make me oblivious of all but you
Sitting by my side
Radiant like the moon
And then you laugh
And fall into my arms
And I am consumed
By the fires of your touch
There are neither you nor I,
Only us, bounded by unutterable pleasure… 


Headache is among the most common health problems worldwide and when it strikes, you might be out on strike for several hours or even days. 
     While there are many effective headache treatments, the prevention is the best place to begin. even if you can't stop every headache, some simple changes can help you avoid at least a few. 

Headache Prevention: What you can control
     There are headache triggers that can be controlled and those that can't. Some triggers in the second category are the weather and if you are female, thee hormonal fluctuations that occur with menstruation and ovulation. You may not be able to prevent all headaches but you can minimize them with headache trigger management. 


     The highest rank in the Nigerian military hierarchy is Field Marshal. But this term has never been used practically in Nigeria, means no Nigerian has ever attained this rank ever.

     The highest rank practically attained in the Nigerian military hierarchy is General. Full General is basically a four star rank with NATO ranking OF – 9.

     Lieutenant General Rank is a high commissioned officer rank sub ordinate to General rank with a NATO ranking OF – 8, a three star rank in Nigerian military hierarchy.


Henry himself knows the answer (Incorrect)
Henry knows the answer himself (Correct)

The dog has hurt his leg (Incorrect)
The dog has hurt its leg (Correct)

The girls will do the assignment theirselves (Incorrect)
The girls will do the assignment themselves (Correct)


It was the end of all her pain
But she was too feeble to know it
She just lay there
Impervious to the permeating cold
Oblivious of the deafening whispers and whimpers

Her fingers quivered
It was the best they could do
I guess her soul wanted to fight some more
I bet it
She was always the resilient one
Never took life’s beating on her back


It was a dark and inky night
Drab, like the sterility of early December
You may still perceive
The leftover of the season’s ilk…

I peered through the iron gate
Behind, the stone columns
Lined like astral haze,
Some blurry marks on a giant’s grave

They are the still reminders
Of man’s eternal enclave,
The dark sepulchral domicile
Where dwell the bodies of the bygone


Caveat – Concepts explained – Freewill demonstrated in Biblical examples – the price of freewill – Reward and punishment, considered in the light of predestination – Biblical examples of predestination? – Foreknowledge, not foreordination – Questions for thinking predestinationists - Credo

This topic implies a conscious belief in the existence of God rather than of an impersonal force responsible for ordering or sorting the chaos of existence. Therefore, the starting point is stating the necessary (and perhaps the obvious): that God exists, not just as a being, but as the Supernal Creator responsible for life in the universe. It may be noted too that this topic, although relying heavily on logic and human reasoning, is actually a Scriptural topic and references will be made prodigiously to the Bible. Finally, it should be borne in mind that this is not an exegetic attempt to justify the ways of God to man; for although the writer is of the firm conviction that God i…

MEMORIES, OF THE ONE..... (by Joshua Omenga)

The most dreadful moment in your life is the moment when the one you love is lost to you; when, in the dreams of your night you strain to grasp her shadow but she is gone. You will hear her voice in silent places, see her face in crowded markets, feel her touch in your loneliness – but the moment you reach out for her, she disappears. She is the phantom after which your longing desires shall never sate. But you do not believe it because you cannot bear the stunning reality.


Man! Energy levels are high this night. Taruwa was absolutely lit. I mean, it was on fire. Every performance was a hit back to back. Then there was The Performance. Mr Incredible in the building. 
     Now, you might be wondering what does this have to do with you. Hollup! I’m getting there.
     Unlike most Nigerian artistes making the rounds today M.I came across to me as having a story to tell. Everyone whether we like it or not has a story to tell. The way we tell it however is what differs. For M.I, its music.


A very powerful man is at the helms of affair (Incorrect)
A very powerful man is at the helm of affair (Correct)

The dispute between the two families degenerated into a free for all fight (Incorrect)
The dispute between the two families degenerated into a free-for-all (Correct)


Moving to my own apartment wasn't exactly the memorable event I'd imagined it would be. For starters, it was so far away from home, and mum, that I was worried.
     When I learnt it was a predominantly Igbo-speaking neighbourhood, my worries blossomed into misgiving. Hold your guns. I have nothing against the Igbo brethren but I'd rather not live with the whole clan. They have a way of making a sister feel like an imposter. Maybe it's just me.


There was a woman at work when she received a phone call that her daughter was very sick with a fever. She left work and stopped by the pharmacy to get some medication for her daughter. she returned to her car to find that she had locked the keys inside the car when she went into the pharmacy and was now unable to get into her car to drive home. 


Bad breath can often be the result of some habits and lifestyle choices. Amongst these, few rank higher than tobacco use. Having a high-sugar diet is another. The natural bacteria in the mouth will feast on the excess sugars and redecorate the teeth and gums with bacteria build-up known as plaque. Carbohydrate-cutting diets can also double your chances of bad breath as your body increases its production of ammonia to try and metabolize food. Regular fasting or skipping meals is another cause. Finally, people who are over-stressed can wind up having unpleasant breath.


Do you know that?

1. The River Niger Bridge at Onitsha was constructed between 1964 and 1965 by Dumez- a French construction company and cost £5 million.
2. Patience Jonathan is one of Nigeria’s most-educated First Ladies, with an NCE, a B.Ed, and a PhD from University of Port-Harcourt.


Idioms are expressions which meanings can't be understood in their ordinary English expressions. they are proverbial in nature. the following are some incorrect idiomatic expressions, their correct versions, analysis and meanings of idioms. 

You cannot eat your cake and have it (Incorrect)
You cannot have your cake and eat it (Correct)

You are fighting a lost battle (Incorrect)
You are fighting a losing battle (Correct)

He who pays the piper dictates the tune (Incorrect)
He who pays the piper calls the tune (Correct)


Sarah is the first 'flend' I made when my family moved to our new place some years ago. She is also autistic.
     A regular visitor at the house, she quickly grew on me, on all of us. Always bearing fruits and vegetables which she claimed were only for "her flend".
     Her family moved away from the neighborhood but occasionally, I'd meet her on my way. She'd run to me and hug me. Then she'd ask how I was and why I wasn't fat yet.

Kept Woman (by Emerald Michael)

I hear the whispers
I see your sneers
The disdain in your eyes and the contempt your upturned noses fling at me.
 "Side chick!" one hisses
"Ashawo", the other snarls
"Husband-snatching witch", the whole room choruses in unison.

Alternate Realities (by Emerald Michael)

To the rich 'Nigerian', the poor are a myth.
     To the middle-class, they are a constant reminder of what a major slip can cost them.
     Therefore, to both classes, poverty is the stuff nightmares are made of.
     That's why people come on social media sounding like all their delicate insides can ingest is Coldstone ice cream and Cheese-flavoured pizza. Like they began to use the dishwasher and vacuum cleaner before they even developed their premolars. And oh, it was private school(s) all the way.

Against All Odds (by Donald Penprince)

I am not a deeply religious person. At least I don’t think I am. And I don’t think one could be without knowing. So it’s safe to say I’m not. whether it’s safe to be not is another matter. This is a personal account, not a sermon so rest easy is what I’m trying to say.
     Nevertheless I do believe there’s some guiding force in the universe that’s watched over me, made sure I thrived, even if not thrived, survived through harrowing experiences, and against all odds.

A piece of advice from Emerald Michael

After some major cajoling and mini threats from his friends, Kelvin decided to break his hole-myself-up-in-my-room-with-my-headphones routine and hang out.
      They met up at a popular Young n' Gettin It bar. There was loud, crude music, junk food and a lot of drinking.
      It was nothing close to Kelvin's usual scene but they were his friends and he was willing to suffer a few hours.


Besieged every day by the news of Biafra – the increasing agitation by the youths, the tacit support of wary and pragmatic elders, the incessant clashes resulting in carnages imaginable only to one used to a blood-obsessed country like Nigeria etc. these contradictions of co-existence disturbs the peace of even the most insouciant. These evil tidings have become more unavoidable now that the situation has been compounded by economic meltdown and abject lack of security for the life and property of the citizenry, so much so that each everyone has become his own police and well-meaning citizens now hail the activities of those disrupting the peace of the Nigerian polity. It is against this background that the Igbo’s cry for Biafra does not seem as preposterous as it would have seemed some years ago.

Facing up to an incompetent political class (by Tabia Princewill)

Every generation sees its rights, benefits and morals challenged by acrimonious vested interests—the rise of Donald Trump shows the racist, conflict-ridden undercurrent present in America’s hinterlands has been kept alive by institutionalised poverty and manipulative politicians, just as it has been in Nigeria.

The Divine Mandate (by Eniola Longe)

The other day in church, a missionary visited. It was a pretty enlightening experience. It may interest you to know that other African countries aren’t exactly like Nigeria. In most parts of Nigeria, you can have about 7 churches in the same area (so, it will be difficult for a Nigerian to tell God on judgement day that he/she never heard the Gospel). However, this is not the reality of most of the other African countries. In Mauritania, a 100% of her population is Muslim. In Niger 80% of the population is Muslim. Even in Nigeria, 50% of our population is Muslim while 10% practice traditional worship. What am I driving at here? Yes, we may not be able to become missionaries for one reason or the other, but we can do something in our own little way to preach the Gospel. We can evangelize.


It is important to note that the essence of law is to preserve life and property, create an environment for human beings to live a contented life. One of such legal platforms to guarantee this assertion is the provision on fundamental rights. Fundamental human rights have been defined as moral rights which every human being everywhere, at all times, ought to have simply because he is rational and moral in contradistinction with other beings.

Mystery of the “disappeared Ogun River” (by Olubunmi Afinowi)

Few days ago, a section of the Ogun River disappeared over night, seemingly without a trace. Strange occurrence it is indeed, as strange as it might seem, such occurrences have been recorded in other parts of the world.

10 Curveball Questions They’ll Ask You in an Interview (by Brysen Boyd)

As you iron your pants and tuck in your shirts, you need to thinking about what you’ll be asked during an interview. Don’t get stumped if an interviewer throws out a wild card. Take a look at 10 interview questions with advice from career counselors on how you should answer.

30 Websites Every Nigerian Lawyer Should Know

1-Nigerian Bar Association (NBA) – 
     The NBA is a non-profit umbrella professional association of all lawyers admitted to the Bar in Nigeria.

Nigerian Lawyers Association – 
     Promoting Law and Justice in our communities.

National Judicial Council – 
     The National Judicial Council is one of the Federal Executive Bodies created by virtue of Section 153 of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. In order to insulate the Judiciary from the whims and caprices of the Executive; hence guarantee the independence of this Arm of Government.

Achebe- A Man Not Understood (by Joshua Omenga)

The history of Biafran war is a history which will forever dwell in the memory of Nigerians, born and yet unborn; but it is a history whose memory is most disturbing to the generation which witnessed it. Not a small number of people are of the opinion that what happened in the years of the civil war should be left as it was – it is a story already over-told. But in There Was a Country, Achebe was true to his words, ‘You told your own story and now you are announcing that the novel is dead. Well, I haven’t told mine yet.’ And now Achebe has told his own story; and what has he accomplished by his exposé on the Biafran tragedy?

10 “Foolish” Ways You Lose Money Daily In Nigeria

1. Unnecessary Parties
It is estimated that Lagosian’s spend close to 40 billion naira annually on parties alone .Most analyst have argued that most of these parties are completely unnecessary and most times do not add value to either the host or the guests.

2. Insisting on Designers, Labels, and Brands
From groceries to clothing to prescription drugs, you can save money by choosing an off-brand over a fancy label. And in many cases, you won’t sacrifice much in quality. Clever advertising and fancy packaging don’t make brand-name products better than lesser-known brands.
For example, generic drugs can cost as much as 80% less than their brand-name alternatives.

Top 10 Most Spoken Nigerian Languages.

English is Nigeria’s official language; however, Nigeria’s large population is responsible for its linguistic diversity which encompasses three major African language families: Afroasiatic, Nilo-Saharan, and Niger–Congo.
     Figures for the number of spoken Nigerian languages range from 250 to over 500 with Ethnologue placing the exact number for Nigeria at 527. This anomaly arises where scholars are in disagreement over which language constitutes ‘language’ and which constitutes ‘dialect’.
     Ajawa, Auyokawa, Basa-Gumna, Gamo-Ningi, Holma, Kpati, Kubi, Mawa and Teshenawa are now extinct Nigerian languages.

25 Facts you Never Knew about Africa

Here are some facts about the African continent
1. Gambia has only one university.
2. Equatorial Guinea is Africa’s only Spanish-speaking country.
3. South Africa is the most visited African country.
4. Nigeria has the richest Black people in Africa.
5. Samuel Eto’o was the highest paid Footballer of all time, when he received about £350,000 weekly in Russia in 2011.

20 Incredibly Simple Words That Most People Spell Wrongly!

Time for a spelling bee! Let's see how well you do. If you realize you actually misspell all the 20 English words below, don’t actually sweat it too much, you are in good company. Ernest Hemingway, Winston Churchill, Jane Austen and John Keats were all notoriously terrible spellers!

Wrong: Embarass
Correct: Embarrass

Wrong: Writting
Correct: Writing

Wrong: Accomodate
Correct: Accommodate

Contemplating Suicide (by Mayowa Folami)

Anna knew it was time to ask for help, she had waited and endured so long but her spirit was wavering and she reached the point where she couldn’t fight no more.She sat on her fake leopard print fur rug staring at her marble table. She was disoriented, she kept staring at the items on the table, a sharp bread knife, a liquid insecticide and a plastic of pills. Just an hour ago, she was going to take the high road and choose death but then even though every bone in her body told her to do it, that they were too tired to live, there was Anna…to her, death was not an option but she found herself contemplating it.

Section 14(2) of the 1999 Constitution of the FRN in the Light of Reason – By Joshua Omenga

The pungent diatribes of some well-meaning lawyers and academics on the unjusticiability of chapter II of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (hence to be called the Constitution) might, on the face of it, seem like quixotic striving, since most of its provisions are even more idealistic and fantastical than the imagination of the most profligate of Nigerians can stretch it. For instance, when a government which is yet tottering on its feet from the turbulence of corruption pledges in all solemnity to ‘provide free university education’; and as if that is not enough blunder, to ensure that ‘suitable and adequate shelter, suitable and adequate food, reasonable national minimum living wage, old age care and provisions and unemployment, sick benefits and welfare of the disabled are provided for all citizens’ (emphasis added), one is almost sure of the perhaps deliberate blunder, and one easily understands why the chapter is non-justiciable.

CEASELESS SORROWS (by Tiwalade Fayinka)

I opened a door and saw;
a room with full fledged ;
sorrow hung over it;
I stepped in;
I stepped into the room and saw;
a girl with puffy red eyes;
and streams of salty water;

Nigeria: Eligibility to Contest Election Into Elective Offices Under the 1999 Constitution [by Professor Taiwo Osipitan (SAN)]

AS the Nation prepares for the February 2015 Election, the educational qualifications of candidates contesting the office of the President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, has generated endless controversies. Two Schools of thought are locked in the controversy. The dominant School of thought has asserted loudly and clearly, that a person is not eligible to contest election to the office of the President unless he/she produces a Secondary School Leaving Certificate or its equivalent. It has been and it is still being contended that candidates must possess/produce educational qualification of at least Secondary School Leaving Certificate or its equivalent in order to be eligible to contest the on coming elections. Section 131 (d)of the 1999 Constitution (as amended) has been cited in support of the contention by proponents of that view to support their position. The said Section provides: "131. A person shall be qualified for election to the office of Preside…


This aspect is aimed at exposing errors that the average Nigerian commits in their day-today spoken and written English. Also, efforts are made here at providing the correct forms and usage of these expressions.

Joseph’s shirt is rough (Incorrect)
Joseph’s shirt is rumpled (Correct)
Silas owns a barbing salon (Incorrect)
Silas owns a barbershop (Correct)

My Landlord gave me a Quit Notice (Incorrect) My Landlord gave me a notice to quit (Correct)


S. 20 EA defines admission as a statement, oral or documentary or conduct which suggests any inference as to any fact in issue or relevant fact and which is made by any of the persons and in the circumstances mentioned under the Act. There are also judicial authorities defining admission. For example, in PAIS v JK PEEZthe court defined admission as a voluntary acknowledgement made by a party of the existence of the truth of certain facts which are inconsistent with his claim. Please note that under S. 19 Old Evidence Act, admission did not include conduct.


The general rule is that facts that are in issue or relevant to the issue in a given case must be proved by evidence. However, a court may take judicial notice of a fact even though it has not been established by evidence.


Presumption is the legal inference or assumption one can draw from some sets of facts. It is a rule of law which may be statutory or judicial.

S. 145(1) Evidence Act 2011 is to the effect that whenever the Act provides that the court may presume a fact, it may either regard such fact as proved, unless and it is disproved, or may call for proof of it. This means that the court is not compelled to draw the conclusion and may call for proof. But S. 145 (2) provides that whenever the court is directed to presume a fact, it shall regard such fact as proved, unless and until it is disproved. The distinction between the two is that the former gives the court an option or a discretion but the latter makes it imperative with no discretion.


Estoppel is nowhere defined in the EA. It is a Common Law heritage. Simply put, ‘estoppel’ is a bar or shield which prevents a party from making assertions contrary to his previous position. It simply prevents a party from adducing evidence contrary to agreed facts. Where a party is precluded from adducing contrary evidence, the fact in issue is deemed admitted and proved (Iga v Amakiri).
One pertinent question raised by this doctrine is whether it is a shield or a sword. In other words, can a plaintiff make a case for estoppel? Basically, estoppel is a shield and can only be used by the defendant. In Salawu Yoye v Olubode, the court held that a plaintiff cannot plead estoppel or res judicata otherwise the case would be struck out. However, the court in Chinwendu v Mbanali, noted that a plaintiff may raise estoppel in his reply to the statement of defence where he is disputing certain averments in such a statement of defence, narrating the defence. See also Adomba v Odiese. Thus, …


Similar facts evidence is a means of proving facts in issue by reference to similar facts or occurrence. In a criminal trial, it is evidence tendered to demonstrate that the accused previously engaged in the relevant prohibited activity. For example, the prosecution in a rape case may seek to rely on rape committed by the accused some years back. 
        At Common Law, the general rule is that similar facts are not admissible. Thus, the mere fact that a man had been convicted of rape on previous occasion(s) does not mean that he committed rape in the instant case. Therefore, each case must be proved on its merit otherwise it would amount to giving a dog a name in order to hang it. The rule is logical and in line with common sense.

JOYS OF AN AFRICAN WOMAN (by Tiwalade Fayinka)

Of the joys of an African woman I write;
The pain she endures from cradle to rest Of being born a servant To serve the male throughout her life Not having a choice;


1. S. 4 Evidence Act and the doctrine of res gestae: The term ‘res gestae’ has a Common Law origin. It refers to a collection of those other facts relevant to a fact in issue because they throw light on it as a result of their proximity to it in point of time, place or circumstances. Those set of facts so closely accompany the fact in issue so much so that they could be said to form part of the same transaction. They also help to explain the fact in issue. The underlying reason which determines the admissibility of fact as res gestae is the need to avoid fabrication of facts or facts which may mislead the court.


The article, ‘As I Lay Dying’ by Joshua Omenga is an attempt to capture the state of mind of an average religious person in the hour of death, but I must warn that the article has great connections to religion, the doctrine of Life Hereafter, the state of a soul, whether conscious or unconscious in the hereafter. Around this subject is the entire thought woven. Although, the doctrinal posture taken in this article influences in great measure my analysis, appreciating this piece from that point will be too deep a thought to convey, being a complex spiritual subject the truth of which lies in recorded Scriptures. I will approach the analysis from the persona's disillusionment with religion and the vanity of man's sojourn in the present life.

AS I LAY DYING (by Joshua Omenga)

How was I to know that this day will ever arrive when I will look back at all my years of living, all my strivings, all my loves and hates, all my desires and loathing, all my years of devotion to religion, all the pains and travails of my life, and the moments of laughter with friends and wild jubilations for things achieved – that in this moment, as I lay dying, I would look at them all and sum them up in one word: Vanity? Not a prophet could have foretold this…


A fact is defined in S. 258EA to include anything, state of things or relation of things capable of being perceived by the senses and any mental condition of which any person is conscious. Please note that things of the metaphysical world can’t be regarded as facts. 


Under the old evidence Act, the Act applied to all judicial proceedings in or before any court established in Nigeria but excluded proceedings before an arbitrator, a Field General Court Martial and a customary court. The position has however changed since the enactment of the Evidence Act 2011.
     The Explanatory Memorandum to the Evidence Act 2011 provides that the Act applies to all judicial proceedings in or before Courts in Nigeria. 
     It is the submission of this writer that judicial proceedings before arbitrators, court martial and customary courts are now caught within the provision of the new Evidence Act.


As at today, the major source of the Nigerian Law of Evidence is the Evidence Act of 2011. Also, there are local statutes which provide for admissibility or exclusion of evidence in judicial proceedings. This is another source of Nigerian Law of Evidence. See S. 3 Evidence Act 2011 which makes reference to that effect. But where there is inconsistency, the Evidence Act 2011 must prevail.


One of the legacies of imperialism is the adoption of the adversarial system of adjudication. Here, judges are not allowed to descend into the arena. It is opposed to the inquisitorial/inquisitional system where judges are allowed to seek for and give evidence. The inquisitorial system is practiced in France.
     Substantive law and the law of evidence are co-joined. They can be said to be Siamese twins. Presentation of evidence is key to the successful outcome of a case/suit. No matter how gifted a lawyer is, he needs the sacrosanct rules of evidence. Evidence has been described as the heartbeat of the law. Thus, Substantive law cannot operate in vacuum, it must be ‘mixed’ with evidence. The combined effect of the proper mixing of evidence with substantive law leads to the success of most suits. Evidence is important in civil and criminal matters.



     Various definitions by different writers and the introduction into Nigeria since 1943. Quite a number of scholars have defined ‘Evidence’ but in summary it is about means of proof and disproof.

a. Statute i.e. Evidence Act b. Common Law decisions which are not inconsistent with the provision of statutes in Nigeria c. S. 5(a) EA allows for other evidence not contained in the Act.